THE RIVER SCENE by S.M. Haslam AVAILABLE DIRECT FROM AMAZON BOOKS

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The River Scene: Ecology and Cultural Heritage (1997) • A River Friend Book • ISBN 0 521 57410 2 hardback • ISBN 9780521108292 paperback (2009)

Practical overview of river ecology looking at the natural and cultural environment.

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Author: Dr S.M. Haslam
With contributions from Dr J. Purseglove & Dr G.A. Wait

Published by Cambridge University Press ©.

A River Friend Academic Book

The River Scene is a uniquely stimulating guide to the appreciation and preservation of rivers. In this highly illustrated account, S.M. Haslam presents a new scheme for the evaluation of river quality which can be carried out by a wide range of users. The book presents an overview of river ecology, looking first at the natural environment—river structure, inhabitants, classification and pollution or other damage This is followed by a discussion of the cultural environment, the importance of which is often overlooked: the history, archaeology, and social and legal contexts of rivers. Dr Haslam is a leading international authority on rivers and their vegetation. By understanding the natural and cultural environments of rivers and applying the methods she describes, our awareness and appreciation of these beautiful resources can be greatly enhanced, and their conservation for the future aided.

Reviews

‘Dr. Haslam has generated a fresh urge to look for more features in each and every river … she has produced more than just a simple introduction to assessment processes … should encourage field studies to take a larger view of the processes occuring in rivers and streams … I set out to review this book, but became hooked and read it from cover to cover in one session.’ M. P. Ripley, Biologist

‘This is a unique and stimulating guide to the appreciation and preservation of rivers … No one who reads this book could fail to have their awareness and appreciation of rivers greatly enhanced. This book is highly recommended for the sixth-form or college library, where it will provide many ideas for project work. It should be read by anyone who has even a passsing interest in the often neglected resource that is our rivers.’ Terry Jennings, SSR

‘… very comprehensive … An essential book for anyone concerned with the conservation, management and ecology of rivers.’ Bryan Sage, Country-Side

‘As a ‘River Friend’ and a leading internatonal authority on rivers, Dr Haslam has produced a stimulating overview which deserves a wide readership, and which will add considerably to the understanding and enjoyment of the many complex scenes of our rivers.’ D. T. Taverner, Journal of Biological Education.

Description

The River Scene: Ecology and Cultural Heritage (1997) • A River Friend Book • ISBN 0 521 57410 2 hardback. Practical overview of river ecology looking at the natural and cultural environment. BUY DIRECT FROM AMAZON BOOKS

Author: Dr S.M. Haslam
With contributions from Dr J. Purseglove & Dr G.A. Wait

Published by Cambridge University Press ©.

A River Friend Academic Book

The River Scene is a uniquely stimulating guide to the appreciation and preservation of rivers. In this highly illustrated account, S.M. Haslam presents a new scheme for the evaluation of river quality which can be carried out by a wide range of users. The book presents an overview of river ecology, looking first at the natural environment—river structure, inhabitants, classification and pollution or other damage This is followed by a discussion of the cultural environment, the importance of which is often overlooked: the history, archaeology, and social and legal contexts of rivers. Dr Haslam is a leading international authority on rivers and their vegetation. By understanding the natural and cultural environments of rivers and applying the methods she describes, our awareness and appreciation of these beautiful resources can be greatly enhanced, and their conservation for the future aided.

Contents
Preface (see below)
Part I Introduction
1 INTRODUCTION: the river habitat The river environment page 1 Introduction to the book 6
Legal and safety note 7
2 WATER: the essential element Introduction 9
Reference water depths and flow types 11
Stream patterns 12
Abstraction 15
Regulation 16
Shallowing and vegetation 17
Pollution 19
Other changes and vegetation 19
Part II The Natural Environment
3 RIVER STRUCTURE and its damage Introduction 21
River structure 24
Stability 49
Channel position 49
Trees and shade 52
Buffer strips 54
Organic carbon and debris dams 57
Sediment 57
Legacy areas 58
Grazing, trampling, cutting and biocides 59
Boats 62
River structure in settlements 63
Appendix: Wetland dyke (ditch) management: recommendations for conservation 68
4 RIVER TYPES in relation to vegetation Summary identification 71
Introduction 71
Species identification, habit and habitat banding 75
Tall monocotyledons 85
River classification A: Haslam and Wolseley Method 87
River classification B: Small-scale interpretation of differences 131 River classification C: Holmes method, typing rivers according to their flora
Fragile watercourses: their identification and protection 134
Rivers change: the changing vegetation of rivers 135
Causes of change in stable river vegetation 140
Protected plants 141
Introduced plants 142
5 POLLUTION: altering chemical quality Introduction 143
The purifying power of the river 145
Pollutants entering the river 146
Effect of land use 153
6 ASSESSING the effect of pollution and other interference using vegetation (macrophytes) Introduction 157
How vegetation responds to pollution 158
Benthic algae, blanket weed, sewage fungus and ‘sewage algae’ 166 Damage rating 168
COVER–DIVERSITY number (too much human impact) 178
7 RIVER STRUCTURE for larger animals Introduction 181
Information presented 185
Invertebrate: Crayfish 185
Amphibians 186
Birds 187
Mammals 208
8 DEVELOPMENT: enhancement, improvement and geomorphology Introduction 211
Flood and waterlogging 215
Rehabilitation and enhancement 218
9 LAW and PLANNING Introduction 233
The Environment and Water Acts 233
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 234
Conservation duties 234
The MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) Habitat Scheme. Water fringe areas, 1994 236
Legal powers and duties of the Environment Agency and the internal drainage boards 236
Planning 239
Part III The Cultural Environment
10 HISTORIC and RECENT CULTURAL HERITAGE Introduction 243
Place names 244
Structure and features 247
11 ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE Introduction 297
Identifying sites 298
Addresses of archaeological organisations 302
12 RECREATION Introduction 303
Objectives 303
Activities 305
Conclusions 310
APPENDIX Survey methods and recording Introduction 311
Equipment 312
Recording and assessment 313
Summary sheet 314
For water (Chapter 2) 315
For river structure (Chapter 3) 316
For river types: vegetation (Chapter 4) 319
For pollution (Chapter 5) 320
For assessing pollution and other damage using vegetation (Chapter 6) 323
For structural habitat for larger animals (Chapter 7) 325
For historic and recent cultural heritage (Chapter 8) 327
For archaeology (Chapter 11) 328
For recreation (Chapter 12) 329
River plans 330
Glossary 331
List of principal Latin and English plant names used in the book 337
Sources of information 339
Index 341

Preface

This book is intended to help biologists, naturalists, students, landscape architects and other environmentalists to understand rivers. It aims to give a wide view, and an overview. It is also for specialists in one aspect of rivers who wish to learn, reasonably painlessly, something of other aspects, and for those engaged in high-level surveys who wish to learn more of the background of what they are doing. It is not a Restoration Handbook: readers will be able to say ‘this is wrong’, but will have to go to elsewhere to learn how to wield the JCB or plant the willow wands. A much greater emphasis than usual is placed on the cultural history of our rivers: they have been used directly and indirectly by people with increasing intensity for over two millennia, and the social or historical ecology is as valid and valuable as the natural ecology.

This book stresses the interpretation and illumination which can be gained solely by looking at rivers, and without the use of specialist equipment. It therefore concentrates on water, structure, vegetation, pollution, birds, artefacts, etc., omitting the equally fascinating fields of invertebrates, fish, chemistry, diatoms, other algae and micro-organisms. Much use is made of pictures, as these can be studied at many levels, and show features from general topography to the effects of drought. Readers interested in the subject should return to these, after the first reading, to acquire more knowledge. The pictures are not solely British: they demonstrate a wider range.

Invertebrates are the main group of organisms used for river study, and are likely to remain so, with the BMWP, TBI, Chandler Score, etc., indices for pollution monitoring, RIVPACS for a more ecological approach, and methods from Watch (Wildlife Trusts), the Field Studies Council, etc., for ‘pond (or river) dipping’. There are plenty of standard methods easily available, so they are not repeated here. The use of vegetation for pollution monitoring is government-accepted, but is unlikely to replace the use of invertebrates (if only because of the extent of existing historical data). There are two schemes for classification of vegetation, that by Holmes (1983) and that by Haslam & Wolseley (1981) and Haslam (1987). The former uses species present, using a key, the latter, the communities characteristics of physiographic habitats. Naturally, the two schemes overlap. The schemes can be used by non-zoologists, and as a complementary tool to the use of invertebrates.

There are several high-level river survey classification methods: that from the former National Rivers Authority (river habitat survey) now the Environment Agency; SERCON (system of evaluating rivers for conservation value); that from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; and those developed by various County Trusts, etc. Each has been designed for different purposes and has different strengths. That at the end of this book is not intended to compete but to check on the degree of understanding achieved. Readers may use it, or omit it and go straight to one of the others, as wished, for natural ecology. No other method covers cultural ecology.

This book may be read either as a whole, or for one or two subjects at a time. Chapter 6 (pollution monitoring) depends on Chapters 4 (vegetation) and 5 (pollution), but otherwise each chapter can be studied separately.

Dr R.G. Sweeting of the National Rivers Authority asked me to write this book and opened to me a new field of interest in rivers. I hope the finished work interests readers as much, and meets Dr Sweeting’s wishes.